Dissertations from School of Arts and Sciences

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Bands of Brothers: The Negotiation of Identity in the Congregation of the Mission's Polish Vice-Province in the United States, 1903--1975.
Degree awarded: Ph.D. History. The Catholic University of America, Bands of Brothers: The Negotiation of Identity in the Congregation of the Mission's Polish Vice-Province in the United States, 1903--1975.Charles R. KaczyńskiDirector: Leslie Tentler, Ph.D.The historical literature on late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century Polish Catholic immigration to the United States includes numerous studies of conflicts between the immigrant laity and members of the Catholic clergy, both Polish- and American-born. While scholars have closely studied the laity's motivations and the conflicts' outcomes, little attention has been given to the Polish immigrant clergy who came to the United States to minister to the spiritual needs of the laity and their perspective on these tensions.This dissertation fills a gap in this historical literature by examining the history of the Polish Vice-Province in the United States of the Congregation of the Mission (Vincentian Fathers) from the first Polish Missionaries' arrival in 1903 to the reconstitution of the Polish Vice-Province as the autonomous New England Province in 1975. Drawing on theoretical frameworks developed by T. H. Breen and Benedict Anderson, this dissertation analyzes the role that competing ethnic and clerical identities played in the Polish Vice-Province's ability to resolve conflicts with its Mother Province in Poland and the Eastern Province of the United States as well as with Polish secular priests serving in Catholic dioceses throughout the eastern half of the United States. While these conflicts were, in themselves, difficult to solve, negotiations between these different groups of priests were further complicated by global events, such as the First World War, the Great Depression, and the Second World War, as well as by the assimilation of later generations of Polish Americans.Utilizing materials collected from archives in the United States and Europe and oral interviews with members of the New England Province and alumni of the Polish Vice-Province's former high school in Erie, Pennsylvania, this dissertation concludes that ethnic identity continued to be a significant factor in the history of the Polish Vice-Province in the United States well into the second half of the twentieth century., Made available in DSpace on 2011-02-24T20:47:19Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Kaczynski_cua_0043A_10066display.pdf: 2079548 bytes, checksum: ca29cea5e83c29872de5b92bef2f6f19 (MD5)
Bar Daysan and Mani in Ephraem the Syrian's Heresiography
Degree awarded: Ph.D. Semitic and Egyptian Languages and Literatures. The Catholic University of America, Before May 24, 2015, this dissertation can be viewed by CUA users only. [24 months embargo], This project addresses Ephraem's approach to Bar Daysan and Mani in his heresiology. The primary aim is to reveal Ephraem's conception of the threat that Bar Daysanism and Manichaeism posed to Ephraem's own community and to analyze Ephraem's response to that threat by expounding on key texts in Ephraem's polemical writings, the collections of his Prose Refutations and Hymns against Heresies. The focus is on three particular ways by which Ephraem casts his opponents as heretics. First, it addresses his attacks on the credibility of his opponents as teachers. Second, it deals with Ephraem's assertion that the apparently pious actions of his opponents are deceptive. Third, it considers how Ephraem is working to create a certain image of these opponents as heretics in the minds of his community. With these characteristics of Ephraem's heresiology in mind, the first chapter of this dissertation will provide a historical backdrop of the setting of fourth century northern Mesopotamia, focusing on the socio-religious settings of Nisibis and Edessa, Ephraem's primary residences. The second chapter will discuss the connection between Ephraem's conception of the correct approach to theology and his approach to doing heresiology. The third chapter will focus on Ephraem's claim against the authority of these teachers and their followers to teach, to interpret scriptures, and to perform sacraments. The fourth chapter will look at Ephraem's depiction of these heretics' apparent virtue as malicious vice and their rites as fruitless chores. The fifth chapter will offer an exposition of the characterization of these heretics that Ephraem is aiming to form in the minds of his audience through an evaluation of the imagery he uses throughout his prose and metrical refutations., Made available in DSpace on 2013-06-25T14:59:01Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Morehouse_cua_0043A_10430display.pdf: 1929150 bytes, checksum: c42b2fd5797e858c8dba11a15783af9b (MD5)
Becoming a patrician: Alejandro Galvis Galvis and the Liberal Party in Santander, 1915-1931
Degree awarded: Ph.D. History. The Catholic University of America, This dissertation examines the earlier career and intellectual formation of the liberal colombian politician Alejandro Galvis Galvis (1891-1981). To do so, it situates his biography within the context of the long history of economic modernization in the department of Santander. At the end of the colonial period, Santander was an agricultural society of small farmers and artisans; over the nineteenth century, the state transitioned to a coffee-growing region dominated by elite landowners and merchant families who facilitate export-led growth. By the early twentieth century, increasing industrialization and cyclical collapse of the export market had created new openings for social and political change.During the first two decades of his political career, Alejandro Galvis Galvis helped to transform Santander into a laboratory of reformist ideas. Indeen, Santander was one of the first regions of Colombia to witness worker movements during the second decade of the twentieth century. Although he is often portrayed as a privileged and distant oligarch, this study suggests that Galvis Galvis in fact had a populist approach to politics. As the leader of the liberal party, he was in close contact with the peasants, workers, and artisans that formed the base of the party in Santander. This approach would be implemented on a national scale after the Liberal Party took power in Colombia in 1930, particularly under President Alfonso Lopez Pumarejo between 1934 and 1938., Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-24T15:03:37Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Castro_cua_0043A_10524display.pdf: 3343708 bytes, checksum: 7d706f137cf5b7f9757cb5498157bb57 (MD5)
Beginning at the End: Literary Unity and the Relationship between Anthropology and Liturgy in the Protevangelium Jacobi (P. Bodm. 5)
Degree awarded: Ph.D. Early Christian Studies. The Catholic University of America, The Protevangelium Jacobi(/italic) is categorized in scholarship as apocryphal. Yet, while instability seems to be the only unifying characteristic of early Christian apocryphal literature, the manuscript tradition of the treatise is remarkably stable. The text is attributed to an apostle and was early considered part of the tradition of the Church.This thesis argues that the author of PJ is not trying to add to the New Testament canon but has, rather, two aims: first, to teach the hermeneutics and techniques for confirming that the Scriptures are written according to technê and that the writings constituting the New Testament are written "according to the Scriptures"; second, to provide the knowledge and critical skills for ensuring the unaltered tradition of these texts and teachings. The text, rather than announcing these aims, leaves it to the reader to discover them. Elements of the text such as grammatical terminology (historia), repetitions of words and phrases, and allusions to intertexts are included in the different manuscript versions to assist the reader in assessing the fidelity of the copy, identifying the main reference works, and determining its subject matter.Analyzing the technical usage of the term historia and reading the text according to the teachings of grammatikê suggest that the writing is a "synoptic" combination of text and clarifying commentary. Morphological and syntactical characteristics of the individual words and phrases bound together in a sentence or embedded in brief narratives, dialogues, or speeches have a heuristic function--they point to glosses in the text (such as paraphrases, repetitions, comparisons, or material for analogies) and to external sources which can expand, complete, and clarify concise passages.While such an interweaving of narrative and commentary clarifies what is said, it also requires transmitting the written text without alterations--even when misspellings seem to beg correction. Features of the text (omissions, orthographic or syntactic errors) that initially seem redundant or incorrect, analyzed grammatically, clarify the argument, allowing the reader to deduce its proposition. The authors of different manuscript versions of PJ use various methods (acrostics, halved lines, references to grammatical terminology and paradeigmata) to prevent permanent alterations., Made available in DSpace on 2011-03-01T11:46:44Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Raithel_cua_0043A_10176display.pdf: 5041533 bytes, checksum: aa02b07576afe79bbf03a71bf6a4d067 (MD5)
The Biblical Hebrew Transitivity Alternation in Cognitive Linguistic Perspective
Degree Awarded: Ph.D. Semitic and Egyptian Languages and Literatures. The Catholic University of America, That there exists a group of biblical Hebrew verbs which appear in both transitive and intransitive grammatical constructions has long been recognized. However, explanations of this phenomenon among modern BH grammarians, especially regarding the grammatical status of the Object, have been unsatisfactorily vague. Many issues relevant to the BH transitivity alternation (e.g. valency, transitivity, lability, verb classes, and constructional semantics) have received sustained treatment in the broader linguistic community. The purpose of this dissertation is to offer an extended treatment of the BH transitivity alternation utilizing the theory and methods of Cognitive Grammar and the related (sub)discipline Construction Grammar. This investigation explains the relationship of these BH verbs to their associated nouns with reference to the prototypical and schematic transitive event. Many BH verbs which permit the transitivity alternation exhibit significant semantic overlap allowing them to be categorized and analyzed as "verb classes." The benefit of analyzing verbs by class is that it increases the amount of data (an important feature when working with a dead language) and, more importantly, it enables the isolation of common lexical qualities that contribute to a verb's ability to appear in alternate constructions. The BH verb classes analyzed are: Verbs of Dressing and Undressing ,Verbs of Dwelling, and Verbs of Fullness and Want. After a consideration of BH verb classes, the same methods are applied to a selection of miscellaneous BH verbs which also exhibit the transitivity alternation. This study concludes that the BH transitivity alternation is licensed and limited by conceptual factors. Though often translated and interpreted as essentially synonymous expressions, verbs exhibiting the transitivity alternation actually offer alternate construals of the realities they represent and therefore should be regarded as having different meanings. It is argued that the meaning of these BH verbs must be established on the basis of the unique combination of verbal and constructional (or syntactic) semantics. Both transitive and intransitive constructions construe verbal meaning in accordance with certain conventionalized image schemas. Such construal is based, at least in part, on the imagination, goals, and intentions of the speaker.
Bilingualism, Cognition, and Successful Aging
Degree awarded: Ph.D. Psychology. The Catholic University of America, This dissertation aimed to answer the following questions: (1) Does bilingualism affect performance in an implicit sequence-learning task and an executive control task? (2) Specifically, do older bilinguals show increased performance measures than older monolinguals in an implicit sequence-learning task and an executive control task? (3) Are second language proficiency, language usage, and age of acquisition important factors in acquiring cognitive benefits? College-aged and older adult Spanish-English bilinguals and English monolinguals participated. With traditional analyses, young bilinguals demonstrated greater executive control than young monolinguals, but the older groups performed the same. Novel distributional analyses uncovered differences among the older groups, such that older bilinguals had better executive control than older monolinguals. Bilinguals and monolinguals performed equivalently on the implicit-sequence learning task. Second language proficiency and language usage did not affect performance on either task, but bilinguals who had been speaking two languages from a young age performed better than people who learned a second language later in life on both the implicit sequence-learning task and the executive control task. Implications are discussed., Made available in DSpace on 2011-02-24T20:48:49Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Romano_cua_0043D_10027display.pdf: 1356932 bytes, checksum: 47e4343966a3d40092ad775bb6544422 (MD5)
The Bill of Rights and Federalism: An Interpretation in Light of the Unwritten Constitution
Degree awarded: Ph.D. Politics. The Catholic University of America, According to conventional understanding, the primary purpose behind the framing and ratification of the Constitution was to preserve liberty through a form of government that provided for a highly structured system of federalism and separation of powers. The primary purpose behind the framing and ratification of the Bill of Rights was to allay Anti-Federalist fears that the Constitution did not sufficiently secure individual rights. For that reason, the original Constitution is frequently contrasted with the Bill of Rights. Yet distinguishing between the Constitution and the Bill of Rights obscures more about the nature of the Bill of Rights than it discloses. It is agreed that one of the primary Anti-Federalist objections to the Constitution was the absence of a bill of rights. A close examination of the debate over the absence of a bill of rights reveals that the first ten amendments to the Constitution occupy a much more complex place in the constitutional scheme than is commonly assumed. While individual rights did constitute an important theme during the ensuing debate concerning the importance of a bill of rights, they were not the only theme or even the prevailing theme. A historically, philosophically, and textually informed examination of the Bill of Rights reveals that it was attentive to constitutional structure and was intended to reinforce the commitment to federalism in the original Constitution. The Federal government could not intrude upon the subtle and often fragile social and legal arrangements pertaining to such matters which evolved over a long period of time at the state level. These prerogatives were protected by the several state constitutions, state statutes, and the unwritten common law. This study challenges the conventional wisdom and decades of constitutional jurisprudence, which have assumed that the purpose of the Bill of Rights was to guarantee individual rights. If properly interpreted, the Bill of Rights would serve to decentralize authority, leaving many more decisions to the states and what Robert Nisbet described as "autonomous associations.", Made available in DSpace on 2011-02-24T20:46:11Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Devaney_cua_0043A_10104display.pdf: 680381 bytes, checksum: 0393c6ed28281e7641268a8f70ea6ff5 (MD5)
Biochemical Properties of MAL and MAL2 that Confer Specificity to Apical Delivery Pathways
Degree awarded: Ph.D. Biology. The Catholic University of America, My focus is to identify regulators of apical delivery in polarized epithelial cells. Each plasma membrane (PM) domain of a polarized cell performs specific functions and has a unique distribution of proteins and lipids. In simple epithelial cells, newly synthesized apical proteins take a direct route to the apical plasma membrane from the trans-Golgi network. In contrast, apical proteins in hepatocytes take an indirect transcytotic route via the basolateral membrane. Myelin and lymphocyte protein (MAL) and MAL2 have been proposed to function in direct and indirect apical targeting, respectively. Hepatocytes lack endogenous MAL consistent with the absence of direct apical targeting. Does MAL expression reroute hepatic apical residents into the direct pathway? We found that MAL expression in WIF-B cells induced the formation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipid-enriched Golgi domains that contained glycosylphosphotidyl- inositol (GPI)-anchored and single transmembrane domain (TMD) apical proteins; polymeric IgA receptor (pIgA-R), polytopic apical, and basolateral resident distributions were excluded. Basolateral delivery of newly synthesized apical residents was decreased in MAL-expressing cells concomitant with increased apical delivery; pIgA-R and basolateral resident delivery was unchanged. These data suggest that MAL rerouted selected hepatic apical proteins into the direct pathway. Recently, it was proposed that lipid-raft microdomains are too small and transient to host apically destined cargo, and that lipid-associated proteins might serve to stabilize raft-sorting platforms. Do MAL and MAL2 promote raft-stablilization and clustering? Examination of lipid-association properties revealed that MAL is raft-associated, while MAL2 is not. Does MAL and MAL2 overexpression promote lipid-association of apical proteins? MAL overexpression promoted lipid-association of both single TMD and GPI-anchored proteins whereas, MAL2 did not. Do MAL and MAL2 oligomerize to promote raft-coalescence? MAL is an oligomer and its overexpression altered the oligomeric states of single TMD and GPI-anchored apical proteins. MAL2 is monomeric and upon pIgA-R overexpression, shifted to high molecular weight fractions in velocity gradients indicating complex formation. Together, these results suggest that MAL oligomerization and lipid association may promote raft clustering and stabilization at the TGN, whereas the mechanism by which MAL2 regulates transcytosis and basolateral delivery of pIgA-R remains elusive., Made available in DSpace on 2011-03-01T11:46:50Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Ramnarayanan_cua_0043A_10158display.pdf: 7526468 bytes, checksum: 30877323c745d83fa0ace37d101e0b74 (MD5)
Blazing Walls, Blazing Brothers: Monks and the Making of the Demon in the Pachomian Koinonia
Degree awarded: Ph.D. Early Christian Studies. The Catholic University of America, Blazing Walls, Blazing Brothers:Monks and the Making of the Demon in the Pachomian KoinoniaSidney Robert Banks, Jr., Ph.D.Director: Philip Rousseau, D.Phil. This dissertation contributes to the study of late antique demonology and the development of Christian monasticism in fourth century Egypt. In particular, I explore the relationship between the development of the Pachomian Koinonia and the belief its members held about demons. While there has been no previous publication devoted to this relationship, David Brakke has included a chapter on Pachomian demonology in his book Demons and the Making of the Monk: Spiritual Combat in Early Christianity. I differ with Brakke in two general ways. First, I place greater emphasis upon the fact that demons in Late Antique Egypt were not only threats to a person's thoughts, but also to physical bodies. Second, I place greater emphasis upon what communal life added to a monk's struggle against demonic attacks both upon his body and upon his mind. In order to carry out this task, I have made a close examination of Coptic, Greek, and Latin Pachomian texts, clearly identified in the first chapter. I have also made an analysis of other texts to place the Pachomian material in the wider cultural context of fourth century Egypt. Using this material, I describe what demons were believed to be and what they were believed to be capable of doing by people living in that time and place. I then explore what role communal life played in the Pachomian attempt to resist the demons.I conclude that the communal life shared by the Pachomian monks was a source of protection against demonic attack. In the third chapter, I show that the presence of experienced monks protected the less experienced from violent demonic attack. In the fourth chapter, I show that communal life also protected the monk from demonic assaults upon his thoughts., Made available in DSpace on 2011-06-24T17:10:25Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Banks_cua_0043A_10200display.pdf: 3378361 bytes, checksum: 7c20ee1b5f3dd025a1e8e7d880bd77f6 (MD5)

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