Turkey and the European Union Reforms: Institutional Change in the Turkish National Police
This dissertation explores the underlying reasons for Turkish National Police's internal reform in the early 1980s. Since the EU granted Turkey candidacy status in 1999, Turkey has had to implement a wide array of political reforms including human rights and democratization. Within-case comparison, comparative historical analysis, and process tracing methods were utilized to evaluate the evolution of TNP from the Ottoman era until present, taking into account changes and continuities over a long period of time. Field research including interviews and questionnaire responses from academics, civil society actors, political party deputies, and police officers was conducted in 2007 and 2008. Research findings indicate that many of the reforms were domestically initiated and then enhanced by EU's demands in the aftermath of the 1999 Helsinki Summit. Moreover, order is a necessary and sufficient precondition to police reform. The TNP has transformed itself into a professional force under the watchful eye of the military at the time when Turkey-EU relations were most tumultuous. Security challenges to Turkish sovereignty such as the PKK insurgency and terrorism presented the TNP the opportunity to become an active player in the Turkish state system.