School of Theology and Religious Studies

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Abner Son of Ner: Characterization and Contribution of Saul’s Chief General
The dissertation represents the first comprehensive, academic examination of the character of Abner in the books of Samuel (1 Sam 14:50-51; 17:55–18:5; 20:25; 26:1-16; 2 Sam 2:8-32; 3:6-39), and it examines Abner’s character as it both resembles a real human being and functions as a literary device in the Masoretic Text (MT) and Septuagint (LXX). Following the examples of Sara Koenig and other biblical scholars (e.g., Robert Alter, Shimon Bar-Efrat, Adele Berlin, and Meir Sternberg), this dissertation gives attention to the ways these texts characterize Abner through direct and indirect characterization, narrative gaps, direct discourse, terminology, and grammar related to Abner, and the dissertation discusses the moral presentation of Abner in the texts and his character development from 1 Samuel into 2 Samuel. Moreover, utilizing Alex Woloch’s The One vs. The Many, the dissertation examines Abner’s character-space — the encounter between a character’s personality traits and its position within the narrative — in MT and LXX. While Abner’s character mimics a real human being in the way he is described, acts, and speaks in the stories, his character also contributes to the plots, structures, and messages of MT and LXX, and he illuminates other characters, especially Joab. The dissertation first devotes significant attention to Abner’s character-space in MT, followed by a discussion of how LXX differs from MT with respect to Abner. The dissertation concludes that Abner is a minor but complex and generally positive character who is integral to the plot of the story. Positively, Abner holds a powerful position within Saul’s court, is persuasive and shrewd, relies heavily upon rhetoric and questions, prefers peace over violence, and is widely respected by other characters. Negatively, he is lustful, presumptuous, and callous, and is an ineffectual military commander. The LXX presents Abner as a more powerful, threatening and yet merciful but less rhetorically shrewd character than does MT. As a literary device, Abner’s character symbolizes Saul and his kingdom, signals negative transitions for Saul’s house, illuminates other characters, and acts as the catalyst for the peaceful transition of power from the house of Saul to the house of David., Biblical studies, Literature, Abner, Hebrew Bible, Literary Criticism, Minor Characters, Samuel, Septuagint, Biblical Studies, Degree Awarded: Ph.D. Biblical Studies. The Catholic University of America
"According to All That You Demanded" (Deut 18:16): The Literary Use of Names and Leitworte as Antimonarchic Polemic in the Deuteronomistic History
Degree awarded: Ph.D. Biblical Studies. The Catholic University of America, The Deuteronomistic History (Dtr) is a story with a message for Israel in exile. It tells the story of Israel's leadership from its entry, under Moses and Joshua, into the land covenanted to its ancestors to its eventual expulsion from the land under monarchy. The story begins with the people's "request" for distance from Yhwh, a request granted in the form of intermediary prophetic leadership (Deut 18:15-22). Thereafter, Israel's deteriorating leadership situation results in further "requests." Human kingship, which Israel "demands" (1 Samuel 8-12) to remedy its leadership's failures, swiftly leads--except in rare instances--to even greater national apostasy. Israel, Judah, and their "demanded" monarchies' sins culminate in exile from the land. This study explores Dtr's thematic use of onomastic wordplay in his narrative evaluations of some of the principal figures involved in the rise and eventual fall of the monarchy in Israel and Judah, this in terms of the legislation of Deuteronomy.The names and biographies of Samuel and Saul are linked together by the Leitwort *sh'l("ask," "request," "beg," "demand"). The tragic arcs of David and his heir Solomon-Jedidiah's lives are told in terms of the Leitwort *'hb ("love") and its antonyms. The Leitwort *shlm/shalôm links David's sons Absalom and Yhwh and itself. Rather than enjoying eternal dynastic "peace" from Yhwh Solomon to Dtr's concern for Israel's loss of "peace" and "wholeness" with as boasted by Solomon (1 Kgs 2:33), David's house, including its "good" kings, experience a "peace" that fits Yhwh's program of "recompensing" Judah for its covenant violations. The fate of the priestly house of Eli is typological of the fate of Israel and Judah's royal houses as evident in Dtr's thematic play on the name "Ichabod" ("Where is the Glory?"). Dtr also plays on the names of Tiglath-pileser and Nebuchadnezzar, Israel and Judah's exilers and final despoilers, in terms of *glh (*gly) and 'ôtzar. Josiah's name is reinterpreted positively in terms of Deuteronomic "fire," but also recalling the proto-king Abimelech (Judges 9). The message to the exiles is one of warning about the nature of its "requests" from Yhwh, perhaps especially regarding Jehoiachin's son Shealtiel after the death of the former in exile., Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-20T15:48:46Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Bowen_cua_0043A_10512display.pdf: 2651007 bytes, checksum: 6354ce21b62f79dcd754f5a824647f2f (MD5)
Active Participation of the Local Church in the Enactment of the Eucharist in the Thought of Edward J. Kilmartin
Degree awarded: S.T.D. Liturgical Studies/Sacramental Theology. The Catholic University of America, This study investigates the pneumatological-Christological understanding of active eucharistic participation as articulated by the twentieth-century American theologian Edward J. Kilmartin, S. J. Based on a Trinitarian model of theology in connection with the insight gained from the ancient eucharistic prayers (participation in the transitus of Jesus to the Father), Kilmartin develops the notion of interior participation as emphasized by the Fathers at the Second Vatican Council (1962-65). He thus provides a "theological" approach to the "full, conscious, and active" participation as succinctly articulated by the Fathers at the Council. The participation by believers in the covenantal relationship with God, in and through the eucharistic celebration, necessarily involves a union with Christ. Kilmartin explains this union by establishing a strong pneumatological connection between Christ and believers resulting from the bestowal model of the Trinity. This union with Christ in the Spirit allows Kilmartin to demonstrate a parallel between Jesus' life of faith and the life of faith required of believers. It is the Holy Spirit, whom Christ sends to his Church, which is represented by the liturgical assembly (the ordained priest and the believers) in the eucharistic celebration, that becomes the Spirit of the Church. This Spirit enables the liturgical assembly to participate fully in the mind of Christ through appropriating the sacrificial attitudes of Christ.With Kilmartin's description of participation in "the Spirit of the faith of Christ" which this study explores and presents, a better understanding of the notion of active participation in the Eucharist can be attained in response to Vatican II exhortations as outlined in Sacrosanctum Concilium and Lumen Gentium. Furthermore, Kilmartin's comprehensive theological treatment of the subject grounded in the Trinitarian model is capable of including the various elements of active participation of Y. Congar, F. McManus, M. Collins, and J. Lamberts as treated in this study. This dissertation, therefore, argues that Kilmartin has made a significant contribution to the notion of active eucharistic participation in the post-Vatican II era., Made available in DSpace on 2012-06-01T16:44:36Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Varghese_cua_0043A_10328display.pdf: 2576156 bytes, checksum: a9bbd4054b3e4fa8d539fac9cb11f035 (MD5)
Advanced Formation for Liturgical Ministers: Understanding and Integrating Full Participation
Degree awarded: D.Min. Liturgical Studies/Sacramental Theology. The Catholic University of America, The Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy calls for the "full, conscious, and active participation" of the faithful in the celebration of the liturgy, as a right and duty by baptism. Heeding this call in the years since the Council, liturgical formation has defined "full, conscious, and active" as taking part in the rites, texts, singing, gestures, and external actions of the celebration. In addition, formation for liturgical ministers has centered on skills needed to perform a specialized role. The problem addressed in this paper is how to help experienced liturgical ministers move to a level of understanding of participation in the liturgy that goes beyond the external actions to the internal movements of the heart, to transformation of life, so that all who participate in the liturgy may live out what they have become.The primary texts of the project include Sacrosanctum Concilium and Lumen Gentium, as well as Kathleen Hughes' Saying Amen: Mystagogy of Sacrament, Susan Wood's Ordering the Baptismal Priesthood, and Louis-Marie Chauvet's Sacraments. The method includes pre and post workshop research questionnaires and a full day workshop. The workshop began with an overview of participation as understood in the documents of the Church. With this background, an extended presentation on participation as primarily internal was given. Interior participation consists of taking part in the sacrifice of Christ by the offering of self with Christ in gift to God at the liturgy. The day ended with a practical experience of mystagogical reflection on the liturgy, which the participants used to process their own participation.The results of the project showed a significant increase in understanding of a deeper level of participation. Half of the participations indicated an increase in their awareness of how they participate in the sacrifice of Christ, and that their participation involves a giving of self, as Christ gave fully of himself on the cross, to God and to others. The conclusion is that further formation in a deeper level of participation for those who are committed to the liturgical life of the parish can reap strong results when focused on increasing interior participation., Made available in DSpace on 2012-06-01T16:44:37Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Wickman_cua_0043A_10318display.pdf: 1463844 bytes, checksum: e0e55c4cef7ab56dc39c0cc2fb58f4cf (MD5)
Agricultural Dimensions of the Book of Ruth
Food, essential for life, plays a prominent role in the Book of Ruth. It serves as the prime motivation for Elimelech’s migration to Moab from Bethlehem, the “house of bread.” Upon Naomi’s return migration to Bethlehem, agriculture provides a safety net for her and Ruth, as well as to those with no other means of support, namely the widows, orphans, and aliens. This dissertation investigates farming and ecological practices, including agricultural motivations for migration in order to understand the background of the story of Ruth and the book itself. After a summary of previous scholarship, the focus turns upon the migration of Elimelech and his family during a time of severe famine and the return migration of Naomi, accompanied by Ruth (Ruth 1:1-6). Here, drought and famine are examined as well as the role they play in a decision to migrate to another land. Next, I examined the agricultural process and the role it plays in Ruth 2:4-17, 23 (harvest) and 3:6-13 (threshing). Pertinent archaeological evidence was brought to bear. Finally, the effects of migration, farming, and ecology on the plight of the orphan, widow, and alien were examined. In an agriculture-based system of taking care of the less fortunate, the fortunes of the poor are often interconnected with the success or failure of the farmer’s crop. Five main conclusions were drawn from this study. First, migration was seen as a viable alternative to starvation in the event of a prolonged famine. Because of a farmer’s fear of losing his property and his livelihood, this option was seen as a last resort. Second, when the primary means of support, the “breadwinner,” disappears, survivors are likely to engage in return migration, especially if they receive news that the famine has ended in their homeland as in the case of Naomi (Ruth 1:6). Third, the farmer is at the mercy of natural phenomena, such as weather, pests, and plant diseases. This was made manifest at the beginning of the Book of Ruth.Fourth, if natural circumstances cooperate, the farmer’s skill, from plowing to harvest, has a direct bearing on the success or failure of a given crop year. The farmer also practices ecological skills such as soil conservation through terracing and nutrient conservation by means of fallowing and crop rotation. Finally, the fortunes of the farmer and the poor are intertwined, provided the farmer abides by legislation in the law codes (Covenant, Holiness, and Deuteronomic). Boaz is an exceptional exemplar in his generosity toward Ruth., Biblical studies, Agriculture, Near Eastern studies, Agriculture, Ancient Near East, Book of Ruth, Megilloth, Biblical Studies, Degree Awarded: Ph.D. Biblical Studies. The Catholic University of America
An Analysis of Catholic High School Religion Textbooks based on Identified Methods for Catechesis and Taxonomies for Cognitive and Affective Learning
Degree awarded: Ph.D. Religious Education/Catechetics. The Catholic University of America, In 2007 the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) published Doctrinal Elements of a Curriculum Framework for the Development of Catechetical Materials for Young People of High School Age (Framework), which outlined doctrinal material for the textbooks in all Catholic high school religion courses. While texts are evaluated by the USCCB for their conformity with the content for each course, publishers develop instructional approaches for catechesis. This study examined the extent to which eight chapters of eight current high school religion textbooks incorporate normative methodologies for catechesis and utilize recognized strategies for cognitive and affective learning. Nine criteria for catechetical methodology were synthesized from the National Directory for Catechesis (NDC). Bloom's cognitive taxonomy was used to classify cognitive learning anticipated in each chapter's objectives, questions, activities, and test. Finally, a modified version of Krathwohl's affective taxonomy identified the extent to which these chapters invited students to demonstrate affective learning of the material. The author and two professionals working in catechetical education used the procedure independently to analyze the same selected chapters to establish the reliability of the results. The chapters varied considerably in how thoroughly they incorporated the USCCB's elements of methodology for catechesis. Overall, fewer than half of the catechetical methodologies applicable to a high school religion course were incorporated into every chapter and one-third of the methodologies were completely omitted from five of the chapters. Inclusion rates for inductive and deductive methodology were particularly noteworthy because their emphasis ranged among the chapters: half of the chapters balance their inclusion rates for deductive and inductive methodologies, while the other four chapters primarily rely on deductive methodology. The results showed an emphasis on lower-order cognitive learning and missed opportunities to invite students' affective learning. Additionally, the complexity of cognitive learning expected from students and the frequency of invitations to demonstrate affective learning differ significantly among the chapters, even though they cover the same doctrinal topics. The findings suggest that publishers can pay more attention to fully incorporate the USCCB's principles for catechetical methodology and a variety of pedagogies for affective and cognitive learning into high school religion textbooks., Made available in DSpace on 2013-06-25T14:58:50Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Engel_cua_0043A_10405display.pdf: 1625765 bytes, checksum: bd576bd0f5345b833dd371fd6a41a467 (MD5)
Aquinas on Israel and the Church: A Study of the Question of Supersessionism in the Theology of Thomas Aquinas
Degree awarded: Ph.D. Moral Theology/Ethics. The Catholic University of America, During the last decade, the discussion over whether Thomas Aquinas's theology is supersessionist--the idea that God abolishes Jewish observance of circumcision and Torah and replaces Israel with the Church--has elicited deep disagreement among scholars. With the exception of a few studies on Aquinas's commentary on Romans, scholars in the discussion over whether Aquinas's theology is supersessionist have overlooked his commentaries on Paul's epistles to the Galatians, Hebrews, and Ephesians, which include some of Aquinas's most extended reflections on the subjects of Israel and the Gentile Church and on Jewish observance of the ceremonial Mosaic Law after the passion of Christ. The neglect of Aquinas's commentaries on Paul's epistles represents a significant gap in the current scholarship on the question of supersessionism in Aquinas's theology. This dissertation adjudicates conflicting claims in the discussion over whether Aquinas's theology is supersessionist by examining Aquinas's view of the ceremonial Mosaic Law after the passion of Christ in his neglected commentaries on Paul's epistles. My dissertation demonstrates that throughout Aquinas's commentaries on Paul's epistles there exist tensions and contradictions in his views of the theological status of the ceremonial Mosaic Law after the passion of Christ. In his Galatians lectura and in his Hebrews lectura, Aquinas argues that the observance of the ceremonial Mosaic Law after the passion of Christ is a mortal sin. Yet in Aquinas's lectures on Ephesians and Romans, Aquinas leaves this teaching out of his discussion of the ceremonial Mosaic Law after the passion of Christ. In his lectures on Galatians and Hebrews, Aquinas argues that circumcision is superfluous for all. Yet in the Romans lectura, Aquinas argues circumcision is a present spiritual benefit for the Jewish people after the passion of Christ. This dissertation illuminates the scholarly discussion over whether Aquinas's theology is supersessionist by demonstrating that Aquinas's thought, as revealed in his commentaries on Paul's epistles, contains economically supersessionist views of the Jewish people alongside and in tension with significant post-supersessionist resources., Made available in DSpace on 2012-06-01T16:44:29Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Tapie_cua_0043A_10357display.pdf: 3124799 bytes, checksum: de0bb20c12e88846d37ef90b28a548b4 (MD5)
"Art and Beauty, Opposition and Growth in the Sri Aurobindo Ashram"
Degree Awarded: Ph.D. Religion and Culture. The Catholic University of America, Sri Aurobindo (nee Aurobindo Ghose, 1872-1950), a native of India, spent his youth studying poetry and the classics in England. Upon his return to colonial India, he became influential in Indian revolutionary politics. Inspired by his own spiritual experience, S'aktism, Vedanta, Tantra, and the Bhagavad Ghita, he later developed his own "integral yoga" in the French colonial city of Pondicherry. Instead of transcending the Earth, his yoga seeks to transform matter into what he calls "the new supramental creation." He wrote over 30 books in the areas of yoga theory and practice, social, political, and cultural reflection, art and poetry. He wrote his most important work, his epic poem Savitri, over a 35-year period as a way to develop his spiritual practice. Mirra Alfassa (1878-1973) shared Sri Aurobindo's goals and joined him in 1920. She was a gifted painter and musician and a spiritual seeker from Paris whom he named "the Mother" when they established the Sri Aurobindo Ashram in 1926. He considered her the feminine ?akti to his masculine ?vara role, and their followers believe them to be their Avat'ras (God/dess in human form). After he died, the Mother continued to guide the Ashram until her death. For 52 years she used painting to grow in her spiritual practice. Both gurus encouraged many of their disciples to use the arts for spiritual growth. Sri Aurobindo's work has inspired various prominent thinkers, and is considered a significant contribution to Hindu studies, as well as 20th-century colonial Indian history. He is regarded as one of the pioneers of the modern yoga renaissance; however, since the 1980s there has been a lack of scholarship on his thought, and particularly as this applies to art and religion. Also, the Mother's participation has never been critically examined in this tradition. This dissertation investigates the following question: What are the Mother's and Sri Aurobindo's aesthetic theory and to what extent does their artwork and their collaboration with their disciples demonstrate their aesthetics? This study uses a historical-critical methodology to examine the development of thought in their written texts on culture and aesthetics, and a visual culture approach to interpret their use of art, architecture, and visual culture. It relies upon disciples's diaries, reproductions of drawings and paintings by the Mother and her disciples, and the author's ethnographic data collected during his stay in the Ashram in India in 2012-13. The results of this dissertation: 1) their yoga is "descendant," demanding a principle of growth that welcomes oppositions found in life to stimulate the universalization of the basic consciousness and to divinize the Earth; the arts aid this process by helping the disciple to face oppositions with sincerity and resilience, and to unveil spiritual potentials that were not known until the creative process uncovered them; 2) they prize the intuition and higher spiritual faculties of consciousness in their creative process and spiritual experience, which diminishes and potentially annihilates the importance of the intellect; 3) for them, the arts are essentially tied to beauty, which aids their goal of the "new creation;" their ideal of beauty occurs when the physical art media harmonizes with the meaning of the artwork, uniting qualities of beauty with the value of beauty. This study concludes that if Sri Aurobindo is a guru who is primarily an artist, his teaching is principally found in an examination of his creative process, his poetry, and his work with his and the Mother's disciples. Likewise, as an artist-guru, the Mother's teaching is chiefly encountered in an investigation of her guidance of the Ashram, her painting, music, architecture, and visual culture, and most importantly her claims to the transformation of her own body. Their combined teaching is intended to be a transformative experience of growth through beauty, which for them is a way to create a non-sectarian sacred gaze in their followers. Their aesthetic goals might be characterized as expanding the basic consciousness in order to critique past uses of beauty that have become an abuse of others; to reinterpret past achievements in beauty with an intent to include all; and still further, to create new, more inclusive expressions of beauty in one's own historical context.
The Authoritative Weight of Non-Definitive Magisterial Teaching
Degree Awarded: Ph.D. Systematic Theology. The Catholic University of America, Catholic theologians have written extensively about infallible and definitive magisterial teaching, but much less so about the non-definitive teaching of popes and councils, even though many of the doctrines taught in papal encyclicals and by the Second Vatican Council fall into this category. Important questions arise regarding doctrines in this category: How are the Catholic faithful expected to respond to such teachings? As these doctrines have not been taught infallibly, what can be said about the possibility of error? Given that doctrines in this category do not all possess identical authority, how can the weight of a specific non-definitive teaching be determined? Official answers to these questions have been rare, brief, and often vague. As a result, the task of addressing these matters and developing a more comprehensive theology of the magisterium has fallen to theologians.This dissertation addresses these questions. Ranging from the Middle Ages to the present day, the first three chapters survey theological and hierarchical evaluations of non-definitive magisterial teaching. These evaluations exhibit a considerable consensus on many points.The fourth chapter of this dissertation constructs a concise method of measuring the authoritative weight of non-definitive doctrines. This construction begins by presenting the consensus among the theologians surveyed in preceding chapters, and then builds on that foundation by adjudicating the points on which these theologians disagree.The usefulness of this method is then demonstrated in the fifth chapter, using the topic of religious liberty as a test case. A prima facie contradiction exists between the teaching on religious liberty found in the nineteenth-century papal encyclicals and that found in Vatican II's Declaration on Religious Freedom. The method elaborated in the fourth chapter is used to measure the authoritative weight of each of these teachings. These weights are then compared to one another; the result of this assessment indicates that the teaching of Vatican II has slightly more weight than the nineteenth-century teachings do. The implications of this result are then explained. The dissertation concludes by indicating potential applications of this method to additional topics.
Baptismal Catechesis: Helping New Parents Develop Good Faith Practices
Degree awarded: D.Min. Spirituality. The Catholic University of America, Baptismal Catechesis: Helping New Parents Develop Good Faith PracticesThomas W. Burnford, D.Min.Director: Dominic Serra, S.L.D.During the baptism of an infant, parents commit to raise their child in the Catholic faith. In light of historically low Mass attendance rates and an increase in the number of Catholics who stop practicing their faith, the preparation of parents for the baptism of their child is essential. The theology, words and actions of the Rite of Baptism provide the foundational material for catechesis of the parents before the celebration of the sacrament. The Rite also directs the parents, with the godparents and the Christian community, to bring the child's baptism to fruition by leading him or her to a mature adult Catholic faith. Central to this task of parents are the witness of their own faith and a home environment conducive to the faith formation of the child. Baptism preparation provides an opportunity to help parents develop or deepen good faith practices so they can better lead their child to conversion and faith.This project included the design, implementation and evaluation of a baptism preparation program for fifteen couples at Resurrection Parish in Maryland. Elements of the program were an initial survey, online and take-home resources, a group preparation session, the baptism of the child, a home visit after the baptism for mystagogy, an event at the parish, and a closing assessment survey. During implementation, the parents experienced multiple instances of prayer, learning and sharing faith in the home.The fifteen subject couples provided positive feedback regarding their experience. The assessment survey demonstrated that, as a result of the intervention, the faith practice of parents grew, as did their commitment to raise their children in the faith. In a particular way, the use of mystagogy after the baptism proved useful to the program objectives, as did the take-home materials and overarching focus on the Rite of Baptism. This project prepared parents for the baptism of their child and helped them develop good faith practices beneficial to raising their newly baptized child in the Catholic faith., Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-20T15:48:48Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Burnford_cua_0043A_10480display.pdf: 2192725 bytes, checksum: 66d4ad8cb4429b9552d149e7b5900fec (MD5)
"Be Fruitful and Multiply:" Catholic Teaching on the ends of Marriage with reference to Questions posed by Igbo Culture
"Be Fruitful and Multiply": Catholic Teaching on the Ends of Marriage with Reference to Questions posed by Igbo CultureFr. Casmir C. Onyegwara, Ph.D.Director: John S. Grabowski, Ph.D.The institution of marriage is as old as the human race itself. While almost every society engages in marrying, opinions are divided among scholars, cultures, and religions with regard to the purposes of marriage. One of the reasons for this divergence is because each scholar, culture or religion defines marriage by paying particular attention to the values and purposes it attaches to it. The Igbo Ethnic group of Nigeria and the Catholic Church are examples of a culture and a religion that define the purposes of marriage by paying special attention to their cultural values and religious heritage. Thus, while the Igbo culture sees children (particularly male children) as the primary purpose of marriage, scholars debate whether the Catholic Church which held this primacy of children for more than twenty centuries(even if not specifically male children as the Igbo do) currently sees procreation as the primary purpose of marriage. The reason for the lack of consensus among current scholars (such as William E. May and Theodore Mackin) can be attributed to the silence of Gaudium et Spes over the hierarchical terminology of the primary and secondary ends of marriage that was used in the 1917 Code of Canon Law.Given the silence of Gaudium et Spes over the language of primary and secondary ends of marriage, the ongoing debate among theologians, and the Igbo understanding of the purposesof marriage as exclusively ordered to the procreation of male children, this study offers a condensed but critical analyses of the history of the Catholic teaching concerning the ends of marriage from the biblical tradition to the twenty first century. In analyzing this history, this study demonstrates that although Catholic teaching concerning the purposes of marriage has undergone significant development in the course of history from seeing the good of proles as the primary purpose of marriage to an `inseparable connection' between the procreative and unitive meanings of the conjugal act,' the current Igbo cultural practice which understands the male child(ren) as the primary purpose of marriage is in conflict with much of this tradition as well as the current magisterial position on the ends of marriage. It also shows that there has been significant development in the magisterial understanding of the purposes of marriage from the beginning of the twentieth century to the present., Degree awarded: Ph.D. Moral Theology/Ethics. The Catholic University of America

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